Peruvians throw parties and hold patriotic celebrations to remember the Declaration of Peru's Independence (,821) by José de San Martín. Across Peru, even in remote communities, homes fly the Peruvian flag from the start of July.
On the night of July 27, Peruvians often stage serenatas to the strains of folk and Creole music in plazas and public parks. Dawn on July 28 is greeted with a salvo of 21 cannons, to herald the ceremony of raising the flag. On the following day, before the famous military parade is held in downtown Lima, the Te Deum ceremony, attended by the president, is celebrated in the Lima Cathedral.
In various parts of the country, Peruvians also hold agricultural and livestock fairs (Cajamarca, Piura, Monsefú) together with three festivals that are the soul of Creole culture: cockfighting, bullfighting and Peruvian paso horse exhibitions.